Pain management in musculoskeletal conditions.
|Title||Pain management in musculoskeletal conditions.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2008|
|Journal||Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol|
|Keywords||Humans Musculoskeletal Diseases Pain Pain Measurement Psychotherapy|
This chapter describes a biopsychosocial model of pain and the way in which it can provide a basis for the assessment of pain and the use of non-pharmacological pain management strategies. Various non-pharmacological interventions for musculoskeletal pain are described and evaluated. These include physical, psychological and social/environmental interventions. Given the often complex nature of patients presenting with persisting pain, it is not surprising that single-modality treatments are rarely sufficient on their own, and combinations of interventions offer advantages, on theoretical grounds at least. However, a number of challenges facing clinicians and researchers in applying these methods, especially when done alongside invasive and/or pharmacological interventions, remains to be fully addressed. These challenges have implications for the roles of clinicians from all disciplines, as well as for their patients and the community at large.